Ghana is blessed with diverse cultural and linguistic groups all agreeing on common objectives. The country has over 100 ethnic groups evenly distributed across the country. Each group is often subdivided into smaller ethnic populations. While some are still available and practice their cultures, others have disappeared due to urbanization among other factors.
How Many Ethnic Groups Are There in Ghana
In 1960s, Ghana had over 100 cultural groups. This was done at a time when censuses emphasized on tribes and cultural and ethnic organization of its people. Since then, later censuses focused on total number of people as a result it has made it harder to get actual figures of all tribesmen available in the country. It is also not easy to know the exact figure of ethnic groups in Ghana currently available.
Other factors including urbanization and migration have added in making it harder to account for members belonging to these cultural organizations
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Ethnic Groups in Ghana and Their Regions
The chief ethnic groups in Ghana in current times includes Ewe, Guan, Ga-Adangbe, Akan, and Dangbane. They are subdivided into subgroups. However, all these subgroups possess a similar history, origin, cultural tradition, and verbal language. With these shared factors, the colonialists were able to form boundaries that now mark states across the country.
With time, these tribes had to defend their land and form alliances against enemies which are activities that brought them even closer. This led to formation of many unions with the most popular being Asante confederacy.
Linguists place Ghanaian tribes into either one of two chief ethnic groups in Ghana -the Kwa and Gur groups, which come from Niger-Congo linguistic family. These cultural organizations are located in the Southern and Northern side of Volta River.
The Kwa Linguistic Group
The Kwa linguistic group is in south Volta and has the Akan, Ewe, and Ga-Adangbe. This group makes up 75% of Ghana’s populous. The Akan group further narrow down into Fante, Asante, Akyem, Ahanta, Akwamu, Bono, Safwi, Akwapim, and Kwahu.
Ga-Adangbe consists of local language groups including the Ga, Ada, Adangbe, Kloli, and the Krobo. Although Ewe is a single linguistic group, they are still separated into Tafi, Nkonya, Lolobi, Likpe, and Sontrokofi.
The Gur Linguistic Group
The Gur group is subdivided into three major ethnic groups in Ghana. These consist of the Grusi, Gurma, and the Mole-Dangbane. Just like the Kwa, the Gur also have further subdivisions.
Linguistic groups in Ghana can be recognized by the class or subcategory that they fall in. This can be determined from the dialectal and traditions, even if they belong to the same social institutions. The institutions founded during colonial periods united some groups and divided others into separate areas despite being from the same community before the colonial boundaries.
Present Day Ghana
Nowadays, it is not easy to identify places with only one tribe in Ghana. It is, therefore, not easy to tell what are the principal ethnic groups in Ghana. The construction of townships and cities has enabled different cultures to come together in search of things such as employment and better life. Migration has also happened in some rural areas, especially cocoa farming zones, which attract people seeking for employment. These people come from every tribe in Ghana.
With the Western education as well as Christianity creeping in, the groups located close to Atlantic oceancoast were exposed to Western influence. They were influenced more compared to groups found in the Northern side of the country. The North, on the other hand, are more influenced by the Islamic culture and religion.
List of Ethnic Groups in Ghana and Population Percentage
- Ashanti 47.5%
- Mole-Dangbon 16.6%
- Ewe 13.9%
- Ga-Dangme 7.4%
- Gurma 5.7%
- Guang 3.7%
- Grusi 2.5%
- Mande 1.1%
- Other Groups 1.4%
Ghanaian People By Ethnic Origin
Akan, Dagaaba, Krobo, Hausa, Nzema, Zarma, Mossi, Abidji, Tallensi, Ewe, Guang, Abron, Mamprusi, Abutia, Tabom, Ahafo, Gurunsi, Ashanta, Wala, Akyem, Kusasi, Anlo Ewe, Kyode, Anyi, Konkomba, Assin, Nanumba, Avatime, Bimoba, Frafra, Bissa, Soninke, Chumburu, Chumburung, Dagomba, Tshi, Dyula, Evalue, Gonja, Fante, Ga-Adangbe, Jakhanke, Ewe, Karamogo, Agave, Kassena, Logba, Nafana, Yoruba, Nuna, Peki (Krepi), Tem, Efutu, Yeji
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